What is Osteoporosis? Consensus 93: It is a systemic disease characterized by low bone density and insufficiency of microstructures, which increases the fragility and fracture risk in bone tissue.

What is Osteoporosis? Definition 2002 (USNIH): It is a skeletal disease characterized by an increased risk of fracture as a result of impaired bone strength. Bone strength is the reflection of two main components of bone: bone density and quality.


Risk factors:

-Age> 65
-Vertebral Fracture
-Fracture after age 40
-Family story
-Glucocorticoid therapy
-First Hyperparathyroidism
-Tendency to fall
-X-ray osteopenia
-Rheumatoid Arthritis
-Hyperthyroidism story
-Chronic use of anticonvulsant or heparin
-Calcium-poor diet
-Smoking, Alcoholism
-<57 kg and weight loss> (more than 10% -of 25-year-old weight)

Other risks:

-General muscle weakness
-Difficulty in balancing (neurological, vestibular, ophthalmological problems)
-Vision defect
-Slow walking
-Disruption of heel-toe gait (arthrodeses etc.)

Who should be made a risk inquiry?

– Everyone over the age of 50 should be questioned
-The main areas at risk of fracture (wrist, humerus, ribs, vertebra, pelvis and hip) should be examined in detail.

Who should be taken for Osteoporosis tests?

– Those with height shortening> 4 cm
-Progressive kyphosis (hump)
-Long-term steroid users
-Those with low-energy post-traumatic fractures
-Patients> 65 years old
-Those under the age of 65 who have clinical risk should be included in the investigation.

Who are at high risk?

-The main skeletal fracture
-Those who have developed kyphosis
-With a shortening of height
-One Major and two Minor factors detected
-Those with low bone density have a high risk of fractures.

What are the normal values ​​in bone density densitometry?

-Normal BMD; T score according to the standard deviation of the mean bone density of young adults: those in the range of +2.5 – (- 1.0).
-Osteopenia; T: (- 1) – (- 2.5) Grade-C
-Osteoporosis; T <minus 2.5 Grade-B
-Group A at risk of osteoporosis and fractures

Who should be treated?

-Those at high risk of fractures
-Those taking glucocorticoid therapy for a long time
-Those who had fractures and low bone density after low-energy trauma are treated immediately.

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